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Basic Facts & Information
Nutrition for Older Adults
Getting older means that you now have special nutritional needs and issues that can make it more difficult to eat the right balance of nutritious foods. For example, your body shape may have changed, you may be less physically active, or you may have less interest in food than before. These transformations can occur so gradually that you may not notice anything changing. The changes can result from illnesses or accidents, genetic patterns, or social, psychological, and economic factors.
Because of these changes, it may be necessary to adjust your eating patterns. If you do not take your new needs into consideration when you eat, you may begin to suffer from malnutrition (nutrient imbalance).
Malnutrition is more and more common in the older population. This is a serious problem, because malnutrition can be very detrimental to your health. It is linked to higher death rates, longer stays in the hospital, and more disability and complications. Also, malnutrition raises the risk of infection, anemia, skin problems, weakness, fatigue, and electrolyte imbalances in your blood. Unfortunately, malnutrition is often left unidentified. Even healthcare professionals may not notice that their patients are suffering from malnutrition.
The Most Common Types of Malnutrition in Older People
Malnutrition refers both to “under-nutrition” and “over-nutrition.”
- Under-nutrition occurs when you do not eat enough food. This may lead to unintended weight loss, and eventually many significant health problems. In severe illness, there may be extreme weight loss—sometimes known as “wasting” or cachexia. This is most likely to occur in older patients with serious diseases such as AIDS, rheumatoid arthritis, heart failure, cancer, or organ failure (end-stage liver, kidney, or lung disease).
- Over-nutrition can occur when you become less physically active with age but continue to eat as you did when you were younger. This can put you at risk for becoming overweight or obese (body mass index above 30 kg/m2). Carrying extra weight is a risk factor for many serious diseases, particularly cardiovascular disease, arthritis and diabetes. However, even in the case of over-nutrition, you may be missing adequate levels of important nutrients.
How Common is Malnutrition in Older Adults?
Many people over the age of 65 are either under- or over-nourished. Among older people living in their own homes, about 1 in 10 are suffering from under-nutrition. Many healthy older adults report that they skip at least one meal a day. If someone over the age of 65 becomes hospitalized, the risk of becoming undernourished may rise to as much as 60%. Up to 85% of people living in long-term care facilities experience malnutrition in some form.
On the other hand, as much as one-third of people over the age of 65 suffer from over-nutrition—that is, they eat too much. The result is a high rate of overweight and obesity in this age group.
Updated: March 2012
Posted: March 2012