Aging & Health A to Z
Basic Facts & Information
No matter what your age, it’s never too late to start being physically active—or to get back into being active. Being active is one of the best things you can do to maintain or improve your health. Activity helps you to stay strong physically, helps prevent falls, and helps you maintain your independence for as long as possible. Moderate amounts of aerobic physical activity (the kind that makes you breathe faster) can reduce your risk of functional decline by as much as 30%, allowing you to continue with basic activities of daily living.
What’s the difference between physical activity and exercise?
Physical activity is any activity that involves moving your body. This includes housework, climbing the stairs, gardening, etc.
Exercise is a type of physical activity that is planned, structured, and focused on attaining physical fitness. Some examples are: swimming, walking, or lifting weights.
The health benefits of physical activity are independent of risk factors. For example, smokers who increase their physical activity will experience health benefits, even if they continue to smoke. Likewise, overweight or obese adults benefit from physical activity, even if they do not lose weight.
What are the benefits of regular physical activity?
Getting regular physical activity on most days of the week improves health in the following ways. All of these benefits can increase your quality of life.
Promotes mental and cognitive health. Physical activity can help reduce feelings of depression and anxiety. Exercise triggers the release of “feel-good” brain chemicals, which can lift your spirits and ease depression. You may also find that being active optimizes your cognitive function—helps keep your mind sharp.
Increases physical strength. Older adults who are physically active build and maintain healthy bones, muscles, and joints. They may be more secure on their feet and better able to move about without falling, which decreases the likelihood and severity of falls. Simple strength and balance training exercises can reduce your risk of falls by 40%.
Helps maintain a healthy weight. Increased weight can be a factor in a number of health problems. Physical activity can help keep your weight at a healthy level. If you lose weight by diet alone, you may lose not only fat mass, but also muscle mass and bone mass. Physical activity, particularly muscle-strengthening activity, can preserve bone and muscle mass.
Restores restful sleep. When you are physically active regularly, you’ll enjoy a better quality of sleep. Being active also decreases your feelings of tiredness and fatigue. Aerobic exercise in the early evening can improve sleep quality, but be aware that exercise later in the evening can be too stimulating and make it difficult to get restful sleep.
Reduces arthritic disability. Studies have shown that older adults with osteoarthritis had less pain and more flexibility after 16 weeks of strengthening exercises.
Maintains or improves heart health. Simply put, physical activity helps your heart work more efficiently. Aerobic exercise (the kind that makes you breathe faster) can improve the fitness of your heart in as little as 6 weeks after beginning an exercise program.
Improves blood sugar control. Better control of your sugar levels means you may need less medication for your diabetes. Lower sugar can also decrease your risk of the long-term problems associated with diabetes.
Keeps bones strong. After menopause, women can lose 1 to 2% of their bone mass every year. The good news is that doing strength-training exercises can increase bone density and reduce an older woman’s risk for bone fractures. Starting an exercise program even late in life can help to preserve bone density.
Physical Activity During Hospitalization
Even if you are in the hospital, staying active—as much as possible—is important. Try to get out of bed as often as you can. Bathing and dressing yourself also counts as physical activity. Staying active can shorten your hospital stay and improve your long-term recovery.
Especially for older adults with arthritis and other muscle and joint conditions, participating in exercise programs when you are in the hospital can lessen stiffness, improve balance, and ease fatigue.
Risks of Being Sedentary (Inactive)
Given the numerous health benefits of physical activity, the risks of being inactive are clear. Physical inactivity is a serious problem in the US. Inactivity can lead to unnecessary illness and loss of your ability to handle daily tasks as well as your independence. Physical inactivity is also associated with higher higher mortality rates.
A moderate level of physical activity—which is also what we define as exercise—is walking 100 steps in a minute. Other examples are listed below. Select activities that you enjoy and that fit into your daily life.
Examples of moderate level physical activity include:
- Wheeling yourself in a wheelchair
- Dancing fast
- Pushing a stroller
- Raking leaves
- Water aerobics
- Swimming laps
- Wheelchair basketball
- Jumping rope
- Shoveling snow
How often should you exercise, and for how long?
Ideally, older adults should do at least 30 minutes of aerobic activity at least 5 days each week, and muscle-strengthening and balance training for 10 minutes at least 2 days each week. It may take months to reach these goals. But the most important goal is to avoid inactivity. You should do the amount that is possible according to your ability, and work toward increasing that amount gradually.
Precautions for a Healthy Start
To avoid soreness and injury, you should start out slowly and gradually build up to the desired amount of exercise to give your body time to adjust. Don’t get discouraged -- reaching your target level of physical activity can take months.
Posted: March 2015