Nursing homes have changed dramatically over the past several decades. These changes have been driven by government regulations and consumer pressures. Today’s nursing homes are highly regulated, high-quality institutions for the care and treatment of older adults who have severe physical health concerns and/or mental disabilities. Assisted-living facilities do not have the same regulations that guide care in nursing homes.
Who Lives in Nursing Homes?
Almost half of all people who live in nursing homes are 85 years or older. Relatively few residents are younger than 65 years of age. Most are women (72%), many of whom do not have a spouse (almost 70% are widowed, divorced, or were never married). Many also have only a small group of family members and friends for support.
The Most Common Reason for Living in a Nursing Home
Some type of disability when it comes to performing the activities of daily living (ADLs) is the most common reason that older people live in nursing homes. Not surprisingly, people living in nursing homes generally have more disability than people living at home. Over 80% of nursing home residents need help with 3 or more ADLs (such as dressing and bathing). About 90% of residents who are able to walk need assistance or supervision. More than half of residents have incontinence (the inability to control bowels or the bladder), and more than a third have difficulty with hearing or seeing.
In addition to physical problems, mental conditions are common in nursing home residents. In fact, dementia remains the most common problem, and affects an estimated 50-70% of residents. More than three fourths of nursing-home residents have problems making daily decisions, and two-thirds have problems with memory or knowing where they are from time to time.
At least one-third of nursing home residents have problematic behaviors. These behaviors may include being verbally/physically abusive, acting inappropriately in public, resisting necessary care, and wandering. Communication problems are also common—almost half of nursing home residents have difficulty both being understood and understanding others. Depression is another condition that affects nursing home residents. Research has shown it may occur more in nursing home residents than in individuals living in the community.
Length of Stay
Length of stay varies greatly in nursing homes. About 25% of people admitted to these facilities stay only a short time (3 months or less). Many people who stay for a short time are admitted for rehabilitation or for terminal (end-of-life) care. About half of residents spend at least 1 year in the nursing home, and 21% live there for almost 5 years. Interestingly, function often improves in many residents who stay for a longer time.
Risk Factors for Admission
There are several risk factors for admission to a nursing home:
- Age. The chance of being admitted to a nursing home increases with age. For example, about 15% of people 85 years and older live in nursing homes, compared with just 1.1% of people 65-74 years of age.
- Low income.
- Poor family support, especially in cases where the older adult lacks a spouse or children.
- Low social activity.
- Functional or mental difficulties.
- Race/ethnicity. People who are Caucasian are more likely than others to be admitted to a nursing home.
Characteristics of Nursing Homes
Nursing homes increasingly offer medical services similar to those offered in hospitals after surgery, illness, or other sudden medical problems. Older adults need a higher level of care, and hospital stays are shorter than they used to be. Medical services vary a lot among nursing homes, but usually include:
- skilled nursing care
- orthopedic care (care for muscle, joint, and bone problems)
- breathing treatments
- support after surgery
- physical, occupational, and speech therapy
- intravenous therapy and antibiotics
- wound care
Nursing homes provide nutritional counseling, social work services, and recreational activities, as well as respite care, hospice care, and end-of-life care.
Choosing a Nursing Home
Older adults and/or family members should try to visit as many homes as possible to get a sense of the overall feeling and quality of care. Using a checklist can help you evaluate quality, the range of services, convenience, and costs. Your visit may last an hour or two so that you can meet and talk with the admissions officers, nursing home administrators, directors of nursing, and social workesr. Remember that no nursing home is perfect, and all will likely be very different from a person's current living situation.
Suggested Questions to Ask When Visiting a Nursing Home
Is the nursing home clean? Are there any unpleasant smells?
Is the facility well maintained?
Do the residents look well cared for?
Are the rooms adequate?
What recreational and private spaces are available?
Are there safety features, such as railings and grab bars?
Is the home licensed by the state and certified?
How many nurses and nursing assistants are there compared for residents?
Do the administrators and medical professionals have special training in geriatrics or long-term care?
Are key professionals full-time or part-time?
How long have the managers and medical professionals worked at the nursing home?
Is vaccination against influenza required for all staff members?
Who will be the physician or nurse practitioner following the resident, and how accessible are they?
How close is the nursing home to family members? How close is it to the nearest hospital?
What is the food like?
How much do basic services cost? What services are covered?
What additional services are available? How much do they cost?
What happens if a person runs out of money and needs medical aid?
The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) uses several quality measures to rate nursing homes. For example, CMS reports the percent of residents who:
- receive seasonal flu vaccines and the pneumococcal (pneumonia) vaccine
- were physically restrained
- had one or more falls with major injury
- have pressure ulcers
- lose too much weight